Rice ( Oryza sativa) is one of the world's oldest cereal grains and has been cultivated for at least 5,000 years by humans. For more than half of the world's population, rice is a staple food and 90 percent of the world's rice comes from Asia. There are thousands of rice varieties, but they fall into two categories, depending on how producers process them: white or brown (whole grain). The most popular form is white rice, though brown rice provides more health benefits. A variety of colors, including reddish, purple, or black, come with brown rice. Manufacturers manufacture many products, including rice flour, rice syrup, rice bran oil, and rice milk, from rice. White and brown rice both contain mostly carbohydrates and some protein, with almost no sugar or fat. A lot of water is found in cooked rice, making up almost 70 percent of its total weight. White and brown rice contain equal quantities of calories, carbohydrates, protein, and fat.
Rice consists mainly of carbohydrates, which constitute almost 80% of its total dry weight. Starch is mostly carbohydrate in rice. The most common form of carbohydrate in foodstuffs is starch. Starch consists of long glucose chains called amylose and amylopectin. Different rice types have different amounts of these compounds, affecting the texture of the rice:
1. Basmati rice is high in amylose, meaning that after frying, it does not hold together.
2. After frying, sticky rice, or glutinous rice, is low in amylose and high in amylopectin, which makes it sticky. For risottos, rice pudding, and eating with chopsticks, this makes it ideal.